Substitutions can be used for validating data at the time of entry in SAP system. This wiki can be used for creating custom user exits so that one can set his validations & conditions. User exits are user defined FORM routines that are used to calculate/replace values with in a substitution .I have shown demo for FI but same steps with some minor modifications can be used for other areas too.
What are substitutions?
Whenever a data is entered in a system, validations are invoked to check  its integrity .Once validations are done, one can substitute the entered value with some other value. This gives you the opportunity of having the system validate values that are to be substituted. A substitution value can be numeric or a string. The system first performs some validations and then substitutions.
Transactions used for substitutions are :                   
GGB1 :  Substitutions  maintenance.                                                                                                                                
OBBH :  Activation of FI substitutions.
Substitutions can be performed using three ways:
1.Constant values.
2.Field -Field assignment.
3.User exits.

Steps for creating user exits for here for fully story

Author: Rajneesh
Source: sdn. sap. com

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